This is the code and some personal notes from the *Shapeless? - Easy!* talk where Valentin Kasas explains in a great way an advanced example of a real life use case (with slides).

## Computing deltas

- Imagine we want to be able to determine what are the difference between two objects of the same type
- For example, we need to know what have changed in our DB since the last backup
- We need to be able to compute such deltas over a wide variety of classes, that are unrelated
- Of course, doing this by hand for each and every class is not an option

Our diff representation

```
sealed trait Diff[A]
final case class Identical[A](value: A) extends Diff[A]
final case class Different[A](left: A, right: A) extends Diff[A]
object Diff {
def apply[A](left: A, right: A): Diff[A] =
if (left == right) Identical(left)
else Different(left, right)
}
```

#### A first Delta implementation

We are creating a superclass here using DepFn . The return type differs according to the input type

```
trait SimpleDelta[R <: HList] extends DepFn2[R, R] {
type Out <: HList //Result is bounded by HList
}
object SimpleDelta {
/** type alias Aux adds as a type parameter the return Type.
* It is convenient in order to constrain it
* by passing it as a type parameter.
*/
type Aux[I <: HList, O <: HList] = SimpleDelta[I]{ type Out = O }
//Recursive Algorithm
implicit def hnilDelta: Aux[HNil, HNil] = new SimpleDelta[HNil] {
type Out = HNil
def apply(l: HNil, r: HNil): Out = HNil
}
implicit def hconsDelta[H, T <: HList, DT <: HList]
(implicit tailDelta: Aux[T, DT]) : Aux[H::T, Diff[H] :: DT] =
new SimpleDelta[H :: T]{
type Out = Diff[H] :: DT
def apply(l: H :: T, r: H :: T) : Out =
Diff(l.head, r.head) :: tailDelta(l.tail, r.tail)
}
def apply[A, R <: HList](l: A, r: A)
(implicit genA: Generic.Aux[A, R],
delta: SimpleDelta[R]): delta.Out =
delta(genA.to(l), genA.to(r))
}
```

Lets try it out

```
case class Address(number: Int, street: String, city: String)
case class Character(name: String, age: Int, address: Address)
val homer = Character("Homer Simpson", 42, Address(742, "Evergreen Terrace", "Springfield"))
val ned = Character("Ned Flanders", 42, Address(744, "Evergreen Terrace", "Springfield"))
```

#### Going further

- That’s quite nice, but still a bit coarse-grained
- SimpleDelta doesn’t work on nested fields

```
trait Delta[R <: HList] extends DepFn2[R, R]{
type Out <: HList
}
object Delta extends LowPriorityDelta {
type Aux[R <: HList, O <: HList] = Delta[R]{type Out = O}
implicit def hnilDelta: Aux[HNil, HNil] = new Delta[HNil] {
override type Out = HNil
override def apply(l: HNil, r: HNil): Out = HNil
}
/**
* H is the type of the head, in this case it is a product
* GH is the H as HList
* DH is the type of the delta of the head (here goes the embedded diff)
* T is the type of the tail
* DT is type of the tail delta
*/
implicit def hconsGenDelta[H, GH <: HList, DH <: HList, T <: HList, DT <: HList]
// if there is a generic representation for the head
(implicit genH: Generic.Aux[H, GH],
// if I am able to compute the delta for these
nested: Delta.Aux[GH, DH],
// if I am able to compute the delta of the tail
tailDelta: Delta.Aux[T, DT])
//then I am able to compute the delta of the whole list
: Aux[H :: T, DH :: DT] = new Delta[H :: T] {
override type Out = DH :: DT
override def apply(l: H :: T, r: H :: T): Out =
nested(genH.to(l.head), genH.to(r.head)) :: tailDelta(l.tail, r.tail)
}
def apply[A, R <: HList](l: A, r: A)
(implicit genA: Generic.Aux[A, R],
delta: Delta[R]) : delta.Out =
delta(genA.to(l), genA.to(r))
}
//To handle types that don't have a generic type , like String, Int, etc
trait LowPriorityDelta {
implicit def hconsDelta[H, T <: HList, DT <: HList]
(implicit tailDelta: Delta.Aux[T, DT])
: Delta.Aux[H :: T, Diff[H] :: DT] = new Delta[H :: T] {
override type Out = Diff[H] :: DT
override def apply(l: H :: T, r: H :: T): Out =
Diff(l.head, r.head) :: tailDelta(l.tail, r.tail)
}
}
```

#### Patcher

A typeclass that takes the generic representation of an object and a delta, modifies the generic representation using the delta

```
trait Patcher[R <: HList, P <: HList] {
def apply(repr: R, patch: P): R
}
trait LowPriorityPatcher {
implicit def hconsPatcher[H, T <: HList, PT <: HList]
(implicit tailPatcher: Patcher[T, PT]): Patcher[H::T, Diff[H]::PT] =
new Patcher[H::T, Diff[H]::PT] {
override def apply(repr: H :: T, patch: Diff[H] :: PT): H :: T = {
val head = patch.head match {
case Identical(_) => repr.head
case Different(_, x) => x
}
head :: tailPatcher(repr.tail, patch.tail)
}
}
}
object Patcher extends LowPriorityPatcher{
def apply[A, R <: HList, P <: HList](value: A, patch: P)
(implicit gen: Generic.Aux[A, R], patcher: Patcher[R, P]): A =
gen.from(patcher(gen.to(value), patch))
implicit def hnilPatcher: Patcher[HNil, HNil] =
new Patcher[HNil, HNil]{
override def apply(repr: HNil, patch: HNil): HNil = HNil
}
implicit def hconsGenPatcher[H, GH <: HList, T <: HList, PH <: HList,
PT <: HList]
(implicit genH: Generic.Aux[H, GH],
headPatcher: Patcher[GH, PH],
tailPatcher: Patcher[T, PT]): Patcher[H::T, PH::PT] =
new Patcher[H::T, PH::PT] {
override def apply(repr: H :: T, patch: PH :: PT): H :: T =
genH.from(headPatcher(genH.to(repr.head), patch.head)) :: tailPatcher(repr.tail, patch.tail)
}
}
```